The traces of goldfish can be found way back to the Tang dynasty (618AD to 907AD) but there are hardly any written proofs available. In 960AD, the period called Sung Dynasty, some of the Chinese writers have stated about Gold Fish domestication.

The goldfish is known to be evoluted from Prussian Carp, which has been proved by the latest scientific methods. Goldfish’s original habitat was found in East China. 

It took another two hundred years for the goldfish to travel to Japan and in the early eighteenth century Europe became the next destination for Goldfish.

The Americans experienced the first breeding of GoldFish in the nineteenth century with the development of the Farm in Mary Land.

Natural mutations produced golden colored fish and later fancy breed were domesticated with silver and many other colors. In the late Ming period, the period from 1368 to 1644, many multi-colored goldfish were produced.

The history of GoldFish is very vast and new types are being produced and the old ones are vanishing with time.

About Goldfish

The goldfish is a  freshwater fish  and is one of the most common aquarium fish. Goldfish breeds vary in size and color which and are known to exist in combinations of white, yellow, brown, orange, red and black colors.

Goldfish varies in scale coloring and size and therefore, they look unique as they are specifically bred to look unique. Goldfish are available in many colors other than just gold such as yellow, bronze, blue and black. Also, they have color mixture in scales.


Goldfish is one of the most researched species of fish found on this planet.The studies have found some of the following distinct characteristics of goldfish.

  • They are great learners and can demonstrate their cognitive skills by identifying their owners.
  • The memory span of goldfish is believed to last for three months
  • The fish have the capacity to distinguish between colors, shapes and sounds.
  • Goldfish responds to positive reinforcement and can tell feeding times in advance.

Identification of male and female Goldfish

You can easily identify a female goldfish by looking for thick and round body shape. They are also deeper-bodied which is helpful in sex identification from the side view.

Females develop eggs during breeding season due to which female looks asymmetrical. Round anal opening also appears in breeding season,whereas males can easily be identified by their tubercles on their gills and fins. Males also have a thin body shape with concave vent.

Goldfish Care Sheet

Goldfish care is most important and the way they should be cared should be perfect for overall growth.

  • Natural habitat offers best environment for goldfish to flourish.
  • Decorations like the sharp rock should be avoided. Also, play sand should not be used as it rots easily.
  • Water Tank Mates: goldfish undergoes through stress, feeling secluded and vulnerable if they are left all alone in water tank.
  • Diet : feed your goldfish perfect and proper diet and try to feed floating foods and sinking foods simultaneously at different places to ensure that all fish gets a chance to eat them.
  • Behavior: goldfish behavior varies as per environment conditions and they show various kinds of behaviors from reproductive to feeding behaviors.
  • Breeding goldfish is a serious challenge and needs frequent water changes and specific environment conditions.
Bestseller No. 1
Goldfish (Complete Pet Owner's Manuals)
  • Aquatic
  • Books
  • Ostrow, Marshall E. (Author)
  • English (Publication Language)
  • 96 Pages - 07/01/2003 (Publication Date) - Sourcebooks (Publisher)
Bestseller No. 2
Mini Encyclopedia of Goldfish: Expert Practical Guidance on Keeping Goldfish Plus Detailed Profiles of All the Major Varieties
  • Russell-Davies, Julia (Author)
  • English (Publication Language)
  • 160 Pages - 10/01/2015 (Publication Date) - Firefly Books (Publisher)
Bestseller No. 3
Caring for your Gold Fish: How to Care for your Goldfish and Everything You Need to Know to Keep Them Well
  • Roberts BVSc MRCVS, Dr. Gordon (Author)
  • English (Publication Language)
  • 48 Pages - 07/27/2015 (Publication Date) - CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (Publisher)
Bestseller No. 4
Goldfish Care: The Complete Guide to Caring for and Keeping Goldfish as Pet Fish
  • Amazon Kindle Edition
  • Jones, Tabitha (Author)
  • English (Publication Language)
  • 27 Pages - 03/07/2019 (Publication Date)
Bestseller No. 5
The Truth About Goldfish: Discover the Answers to Goldfish Success
  • Clawson, Meredith (Author)
  • English (Publication Language)
  • 160 Pages - 10/12/2021 (Publication Date) - Independently published (Publisher)

Last update on 2023-09-06 / Affiliate links / Images from Amazon Product Advertising API

Goldfish Breeding and Mating

Goldfish breeding is not an easy process. It is difficult to breed goldfish in captivity and is not easy as it is in outdoor ponds because it is their natural habitat and there, goldfish have more oxygen, space and plants to lay their eggs on.

So, to induce breeding they need quality care just like their natural habitat, including more space, right nutrition and quality water conditions with specific temperature. 

All this helps in finding fertile mates, encourages procreation and ensures correct incubation and birth of eggs in breeding goldfish.

Bestseller No. 1
Goldfish Breeding: How to Successfully Raise Goldfish Fry
  • Lord, Grant (Author)
  • English (Publication Language)
  • 76 Pages - 09/22/2017 (Publication Date) - National Library of New Zealand (Publisher)
Bestseller No. 2
About Goldfish: The Ultimate Guide to Care and Breeding
  • Lord, Grant (Author)
  • English (Publication Language)
  • 286 Pages - 08/31/2021 (Publication Date) - National Library of New Zealand (Publisher)
Bestseller No. 3
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  • Aquarium decoration stone hideaway provides visual interest for you and your fish.Change your aquarium into a beautiful scenery.
  • Holes provide a hideaway to rest or hide reducing stress and aggression and hollow caves provides shelter, hiding spots, and spawning sites for your fishes.
  • Ceramic hideout habitat is smooth and without any sharp edges, won't scratch your fishes,safe for use in both freshwater and saltwater aquariums.
  • Suitable for small bream, shrimp, cichlids or other small fish when they need a rest and having fun.
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Bestseller No. 5
The Goldfish Essential Guide : Detailed Instructions for Caring for and Breeding Goldfish for Beginners
  • Amazon Kindle Edition
  • Bechtelar, Bud (Author)
  • English (Publication Language)
  • 104 Pages - 02/01/2023 (Publication Date)

Last update on 2023-09-06 / Affiliate links / Images from Amazon Product Advertising API

Breeding Equipment

To breed goldfish you need plantssponge filter and an air pump for the fry tank and spawning mop and also male and female goldfish. Your main aquarium tank should be established and properly cycled with filtration, plants, spawning mop and heater. Spawning mop protect the eggs from the parents. Also, set up a small tank for the fry.

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  • Widely Applications: It can isolate baby fish or sick fish, for breeding of ornamental fish. This product is self floating and can effectively isolate tropical fish, shrimps,clownfishes, guppy fishes,goldfishes, baby fishes,little turtles,etc. Especially perfect for home fish tank, aquariums, marine parks, etc. This is a multi-function isolation box, suitable for family farming and includes isolation and hatching. Separates new-born fry from other fish,improve the survival rate of juvenile fish.
  • Products Attributions: Each fish breeder box included 2pcs frames, 1pcs partition, 1pcs floor, 4pcs columns, 6pcs sucking discs, 1pcs gauze cloth. Super tiny gap of the gauze net, which is only 1mm gap of each net hole can protect baby fish very well. The middle partition is detachable flexible isolation board, which can move left and right. The isolation layer can be used for oviposition isolation.
  • Tips: This product is manual measurement, if there is a slight deviation, please understanding.Due to the product is large size,please measure your fish tank before you buy this product.
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Bestseller No. 5
The Octonauts and The Growing Goldfish: Now a major television series!
  • Meomi (Author)
  • English (Publication Language)
  • 40 Pages - 06/05/2018 (Publication Date) - HarperCollinsChildren’sBooks (Publisher)

Last update on 2023-09-06 / Affiliate links / Images from Amazon Product Advertising API

Sexing and Isolating

Goldfish can be sexed from the age of one year. You should know the number of males and females before you can start breeding goldfish.

  • The Female has swollen abdomen,which is very soft and movable and are rounded than the males and when she is ready to spawn, vent becomes protruded. The Pectoral fins are round and short.
  • Male has breeding tubercles or white “stars” covering its gills and pectoral fins and when he is ready to spawn, the vent becomes more open and longer. The pectoral fins are pointier and longer.

Isolating males and females for a week in different tanks before breeding to create a greater desire to breed.

Spawning (Mating)

The breeding process is started by the female when she sends out pheromones which encourages male goldfish to produce milt.

Goldfish gets interested in spawning with gradually increasing temperature of the water, which ensures good spawning. Male grows tubercles on his gills and fins and starts to chase the female around the aquarium  to encourage her to release eggs.

Time of Spawning

Spawning process can be of few days, a week or more than once a season. Goldfish breed better at the age of 3 years and spawn from April to August and the spawning activities occur daily until all the females have laid eggs when the weather is warmer.

Goldfish Eggs

Goldfish eat all their eggs. Hence, separate parents from their eggs to ensure eggs are hatched successfully. Fertilized eggs should hatch within 4 to 7 days.

When eggs are fertilized, feed them the same food that you feed the adults. Make sure they are in smaller bites than the adult food. Soon your young goldfish will develop.

Feeding New Fry

Newly hatched fry are small and must be given very nutritious and very small food. Start feeding them at 48 hours after hatching and feed them newly hatched brine shrimp. This is high protein formed for the hatchlings of egg layers.

Once fry start swimming, they’re still too small for fish foods, you should feed them egg yolk dissolved in water. To feed egg yolk dissolved in water you must hard boil an egg and break off into pieces of the size of a pea. Put the piece of yolk in a sealed jar of water from the fry tank.

The Jar must be shaken until egg mixes and water looks cloudy. Now you must pour small amounts into the tank at a time and store the rest in the fridge for future feeding sessions. You should make new batch once every few days so that it will ensure you that you are always using reasonably fresh egg.

As the fry grows, you can start to feed them with larger foods like daphnia and powdered spirulina flakes. Gradually they will become large to eat premium flakes and pellets. 

With all proper care and feeding, the fry will reach full maturity at around age of two years in most cases and will become old enough to start the process of goldfish reproduction.

Finally, do not add any fry to the main tank till they are big enough to survive with the other goldfish which means they should be strong swimmers and should be bigger than the mouths of the adult goldfish. Know More

Goldfish Feeding(Food & Diet)


For best and perfect care of your goldfish you should feed right food in proper amount.The diet of goldfish generally consists of crustaceans, insects, and plants.

Goldfish-specific food has less protein and more carbohydrate and their preferences vary like all other animals. With proteins, other supplements should also be considered when feeding your goldfish like:
  • Vitamins and minerals are very important for growth for any type of exotic fish like Pompon and Oranda.
  • Carbohydrates and Fats are important for energy sources.
  • Fat is also important for fish so that they can easily survive the winter months.
  • Fiber is necessary for a healthy digestive system. Goldfish should regularly eat foods from every food group for optimum health.

There are so many different foods goldfish eats and are given as follows:

Dry Goldfish Foods

Goldfish dry foods are specially formed to sink in water while others float at the top of the aquarium. Flakes float at the top of the aquarium whereas pellets sink in water.

  • Flake foods are available that meets nutritional requirements. This dry food can lose their nutritional value to some extent after the water tank is opened and flakes are exposed.
  • Pellets do not lose their nutritional value as flakes do. This dry food comes in many types, of which most common type pellet has all ingredients for a complete diet.

Live Goldfish Foods

Live Goldfish foods are best, but they have risk as they can transfer diseases. Live foods that do not transfer diseases to your goldfish are brine shrimp and earthworms. Other common live foods tubifex worms, white worms, drosophila, daphnia, and bloodworms.

  • Brine shrimpeggs can be hatched quickly within 24 hours.
  • Earthworms should be collected from areas where herbicides are not used.
  • Live aquatic plants
  • Duckweed is easy to grow as long as lighting requirements are met.

Frozen and Freeze-dried Foods

These foods provide a variety of food to your goldfish without much effort. It gives the same benefits as of live foods without any risk of transfer of diseases.

They are available in large chunks, but freeze-dried goldfish food can be broken up into pieces for younger goldfish and are eaten as whole happily by full-grown goldfish. 

These foods include brine shrimp, tubiflex worms, krill, mosquito larvae, daphnia and bloodworms. Brine shrimpand blood worms are most popular food.

  • Krill helps in boosting high carotene levels which are very important for red pigment growth. Carotene promotes beautiful contrasting colors in goldfish.
  • Squid and algae are found in marine environments and makes your goldfish diet stable. They are good sources of nutrition.

Occasional Goldfish Treats

Goldfish treats can be fed once a week or a couple of times per month. Veggies should be given to older goldfish for easy digestion and goldfish can’t find veggies in natural habitat while it enjoys bits of lettuce, cooked zucchini, cooked peas and beet tops. Just like frozen peas with the skin removed, frozen zucchini, diced boiled potatoes and boiled broccoli can be fed.

Variety Foods

Only one type of food feeding can result in many issues. So, it is necessary that your goldfish should have a varied diet.

Variety ensures that your goldfish will always receive the perfect amount of nutrients for their strong growth. You should include all three types of food in your goldfish’s diet: live or freeze-dried food, veggies and dry food.


Goldfish loves to munch on live plants. Always add a few plants like anacharis for your goldfish as a special treat.

Household Foods

Household foods should be given in moderation and should always be diced or shredded. Only high quality foods should be given with no spices and not even salt.

Frozen foods should be served thawed like clams, shrimp, mussels, lobster, fish, crab and oysters. Canned foods are same as frozen but should also include beans and peas. Raw foods should be same as frozen but it should also include spinach, lettuce and ground beef. Cooked food should include potatoes, beans, peas, broccoli, egg yolk and cauliflower.

Amount of food goldfish should eat

Overfeeding results in swim bladder problems and blocked intestines. Too little food results in nutritional deficiencies.You should feed your goldfish not more than it can consume in 5 to 6 minutes. Know More

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  • FOR DAILY FEEDING: Feed your goldfish two to three times daily, only as much as your fish can consume within several minutes
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Last update on 2023-09-06 / Affiliate links / Images from Amazon Product Advertising API

Goldfish Diseases

If a goldfish is behaving in a strange manner like rubbing against objects  or resting lethargically at the bottom of the tank, you must sense something is wrong with gold fish.

It’s especially alarming when your goldfish starts developing cotton-like growths and discolored patches along the scales and fins. Any harmful environment is bound to affect animals at the end of the day. Common goldfish diseases are IckFin RotFungusAnchor Worms, Lice.

Growth rate and LifeSpan Of Goldfish

There are many factors that determine the growth of goldfish such as health, water conditions, space, and type of food. For example, goldfish which is kept in congested environment and are only fed with dry prepared food will never thrive due to improper environmental conditions.

Growth rate

Goldfish growth rates totally depend on the water conditions they are in and, on the high quality food, they feed.  If suitable environment is provided to single tail goldfish, it grows to 10 inches and can reach 12 inches.

If goldfish are kept in small tanks, then goldfish’s life is shortened and its growth is stunted. Growth  rates of goldfish depend on their environment.


Goldfish are a long-lived fish species and can live for decades with proper care. The oldest recorded goldfish was 43 years old! In captivity, goldfish can live 10-15 years on average, but some goldfish have been known to live much longer. The key to a long and healthy goldfish lifespan is providing them with clean water, good food, and plenty of space to swim.

Life expectancy

The Goldfish must have excellent health to have high life expectancy and fish under 2 inches in length are susceptible to parasites such as body flukes and gill flukes.

If suitable environment is provided to single tail, goldfish have a life expectancy of about 20 years, whereas fancy goldfish normally grows to 8 inches and have a life expectancy of 12 years.


Selecting a name for your fish is one of the most important part of fish care. It helps you to distinguish each fish so that you can easily take care of your special or loved one fish. Here is an answer for your question. We have complete list of goldfish names.

Tank Mates compatibility

Choosing a partner for your fish is a quite a challenging task. Goldfish are very choosy when it comes to mate-compatibility . While keeping two types of goldfish together, it should be considered that what kinds are safe to keep together in the water tank.

The Goldfish has very specific requirements. So, other fish in same tank must be able to live in the same conditions. 

When you decide goldfish compatibility with other fish, you should consider that goldfish like low temperature, needs more space, eats a lot, produces lots of waste and their scales are damaged easily.

Hence, you should have two fishes in same tank who favor same temperature and won’t harm each other.

Some of the compatible partners for your Goldfish are Apple SnailsGhost/Red Cherry ShrimpFeeder FishPlecos & Weather LoachesKnow More

Goldfish Tanks,  Aquariums and Bowls


Goldfish cannot live in bowl. To keep your goldfish healthy you should take care of the goldfish water tank and aquarium requirements like what to avoid and how should you take care of water tank conditions perfectly. Know More

Water Temperature

The temperature should always be below 23.5° C and perfectly should remain between 18° and 20° C so you should have a thermometer.

PH level

Goldfish is healthy and joyfully well in the 7.2 to 7.6 range and can withstand variations in pH level. Low pH level can weaken your fish, whereas at high pH level, ammonia becomes toxic.

Painting a Tank

If you want to beautify your tank with painting a backdrop or painting the decorations, always use a paint that is safe or you may risk killing your goldfish.

Goldfish maintenance and care

When you decide to breed goldfish and have them as your pet, you should know the best ways as how goldfish are cared for their happy and healthy life. .

You should get a large water tank for your goldfish to increase their length and quality of life. Keeping them in small tanks can result in short life spans. For decorations use large rocks as it is too big for goldfish and can’t get stuck in their throat. 

Make your water tank conditions similar as natural habitat before introducing goldfish in it. To accomplish this, you should keep water temperature, pH level right along with the right amount of nitrate and oxygen levels. You should use test kits like a pH test kit to test pH levels.

Goldfish Facts

  • Goldfish should be given digestive food in small sessions as they don’t have the stomach.
  • If given care, they can live for many years up to 45 years.
  • The Goldfish has the ability to differentiate and recognize faces, colors, shapes and sounds.
  • Goldfish have a memory of three months
  • Goldfish can grow longer when kept in right living conditions to be over 1 foot long.
  • Many varieties of goldfish are possible due to selective breeding.
  • Goldfish does not have any eyelids.
  • Goldfish are known to be petted from 2000 years
  • The Goldfish has the ability to see UV and infrared lights. So, they can see more colors than humans can see.

How To Buy Goldfish

Goldfish are among those pets who are easy to care and their long and happy life is dependent on water tank preparation and  your decisions while buying goldfish at the pet store.

Your best option to buy goldfish can be aquarium pet shops, local pet stores and online websites.

Buy online

Goldfish is sold through online options. When you buy goldfish, consider online websites as your last option and even you if you choose to buy through online websites, go to the best Internet retailers as they pack and ship their goldfish very carefully and properly.


When you buy, you should consider whether to buy goldfish for outdoor ponds or indoor water tanks. Price of goldfish varies and you can easily buy them at reasonable prices. Cost varies depending on  different sizes and different varieties.

Goldfish supplies

When you buy, you need to buy supplies for your goldfish such as filter, water conditioner and fish food. Also buy a gallon tank, water dechlorinator, gravel stones, plants, air pump, air bubble wand, a powerful aerator, other tank decorations, gravel vacuum for cleaning the fish tank easily and best brand fish food.

GoldFish FAQs

Are goldfish easy to take care of?

Yes, goldfish are easy to take care of. They are hardy fish and can tolerate a wide range of water conditions. They are also very adaptable fish and can live in a variety of different habitats.

What size tank do I need for 2 goldfish?

A 30-40 gallon tank is the minimum size tank you should get for 2 goldfish. Goldfish are actually very messy fish and produce a lot of waste. They also grow quite large, so you need to make sure you have enough room for them to swim and grow.

Do goldfish need a bubbler?

Goldfish do not need a bubbler, but they certainly enjoy the added aeration and water movement that one provides. In addition to oxygenating the water, a bubbler can also help to remove harmful ammonia and nitrites from the water, making it a healthier environment for your goldfish.

Do goldfish like LED lights?

Yes, goldfish do like LED lights. In fact, they are very attracted to them. LED lights help to bring out the natural colors of the fish and make them look more vibrant. They also help to create a more relaxing and peaceful environment in the aquarium.

How often do you need to change goldfish water?

Ideally, you should change goldfish water every week. This will help to keep the water quality high and prevent problems such as disease.

Goldfish Care Summary

Goldfish are a great addition to any home, and with the proper care, they can live a long and healthy life. There are a few things to keep in mind when caring for goldfish, such as their diet, tank mates, and water conditions. Goldfish are also known to be very resilient, so if you are ever unsure about something, it is always best to consult with a professional.


[Revised and Updated for July, 2019]
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Written by Debra Hutchinson, founder of FishXperts